By Lorenz, Carol Ann  

aban- metal staple; a divination device.

abelambn. facial tattoos radiating from the outer corner of each eye.

abihiaga. body tattoos fanning downward from the navel.

ada- sword representing the Onojie's right to execute criminals.

afa. traditional harp.

afiamhẹn. bird.

 afua- white (also efua).

afuamhin. whiteness (also fuamhin).

aga. Chair

agbada. double-edged fighting sword.

agbala. courtly stool (also agba).

agbazi. display of strength.

agbn. chisel.

agbn design; pattern; writing.

agbn. dance (see also ikbin).

agbnelen. "written (upon)," handwoven cloth with many patterns.

Aqbnojie. acrobatic masquerade, lit. "dance of kings."

Agboghidi. rebel hero commemorated in an Ekpo mask at Ekekhen village, Igueben.

agbọn. world of the living; natural world.

agbọn oba. “world of the oba;" in the olden days.

agha- adze, (see also asojia).

Aghale. village official who divides cash and goods given to elders.

agobọ. left; left hand.

agogo. metal gong; clock; wrist or pocket watch.

abamban. woman' s ivory armlet and symbol of wealth.

ahia. extension of the right hand in limbin ancestral masquerade costumes.

akala. side-blown horn.

akasi. horse; donkey (also si).

akeni. elephant tusk; ivory (see also uhin-eni).

akhe- pot, pottery.

akhe-umambin. pot-making.

 akhu- door; shutter (also ekhu; see also od).

akhuara. blacksmith's tongs.

akpata. lateral hair crest worn by some Enijie and chiefs (also uguakpata).

akpede. crossbow.

akpono. female waist beads.

akwete. handwoven cloth with supplementary weft designs, referring to Akwete in Igbo land.

alebhuku. hereditary.

alu. shrine; altar.

alu-ediọn. ancestral shrine.

alu-enijie. royal ancestral shrine.

alu-limhin. ancestral shrine.

alu-otọ. shrine of the land.

am water; rain; tears.

amukpe. first rains of the year (amn ukpe).

anyọn. palm wine; any alcoholic beverage.

arbu-ivie. coral beaded crown worn by the Enijie.

asa. shield.

asan eruerie. category of staffs of office carried by representatives of the ọba (Ewohimi).

asojia. adze (see also agha).

asọn· night.

asonogun. finger piano; common social dance.

atapakpa. leopard (see also ekpen).

ato. grass; grassland; savannah.

ava· blacksmith's hammer.

awa. dog; pejorative name for sexually promiscuous person.

awase. efficacious divination objects, lit. "let it be true.”

awnwn. crotal bells.

awua· taboo; abomination; forbidden.

aza. treasury; storeroom.

azagba. compound.

azelu. personal protection cult (also azenu, aizelu).

az witch; wizard; witchcraft.

azuzu. leather fan.

ebe. leaf.

ebọ· spirit; supernatural being; "juju."

ediena. spirit of carpenters' and carvers' tools (Uromi).

Ediọn-enn four eldest men in a community.

Ediọn-Ihinlọn. seven most senior (highest ranking) chiefs (see also Ekhaẹm-Ihinlọn).

egbe. body.

egbegbuwa. earthen wall of a house.

Egbọnughele. junior rank of age grade system, lit. "street sweepers."

eghuqbu. praise term for an limbin masker, said to be in the Iqbanlan (Igala) language.

ehianhian. star.

ei. tortoise.

ekan. large bead of coral or other red material.

ekasa. yellow soap, used in coating the eto-ọmọ hairdo.

ekn. mud

Ekhaembọn-Ihinlọn. Seven highest ranking chiefs (see also Ediọn-Ihinlọn).

ekhi. bellows used by traditional blacksmith.

Eko. camp; hamlet.

Ekpo. masquerade of Bini origin at Ekekhen village, Igueben.

elamhn. animal; meat.

elọ. curved knife; woman's knife.

Ema. pounded yam; fufu.  

ematọn. iron, scrap metal.

emln. monkey

eni. elephant.

enikhiason. witches and sorcerers, lit. "people of the night."

erido. loom.

Esan- Esan language, people and territory.

 Es. circle.

Eto. hair.

eto-ikpododo. girl's hairdo with red dye.

eto-ọkuku· beehive-like hairdo, traditionally for royal women, but now worn by any senior female mourner at burial ceremonies.

Eto-ọmọ. five-lobed hairdo for new mothers, lit. "child hairdo.”

etuke. hairstyle for adult woman, formerly reserved for wives of the Enijie or chiefs.

ewa. mat.

ewawa. a type of divination equipment.

bnln. state sword in palmate shape, representing Onojie's right to rule (also bẹn).

bẹn -ido. beater used in weaving cloth, lit. "weaving sword.”

bhe. goat; pejorative term for foolish person or idiot.

bhelẹ. kolanut; kola tree (Cola verticillata).

ẹbho. people; community (also ẹbholo).

ẹdẹ. stream; river.

ẹdẹ. day; time.

ẹgba. protective armlet or girdle of iron, leather or cloth.

ẹgbẹle. lineage; kin group; extended family.

ẹgbo. forest.

ẹgbob (ẹgba-obọ) -protective circlet for the wrist or arm.

ẹgbokhin. cloth circlet, part of 112 costume.

ẹghodo. courtyard (also oghodo).

guae. Onojie's palace.

quare. royal quarter (also ẹguale).

ẹgue- hoe.

 ẹhi. guardian spirit; "angel."

kesan. "deep Esan," lit. "inside Esan" (see also otọesan).

ẹki. Market

ki olele. main market.

ki ughele. village market.

kpn. leopard; "tiger" (see also atapakpa).

kpti. wooden storage box.

kpokin. leather and wood box stool.

E̩kule. Akure specifically; all Yoruba by extension (also E̩kure).

limbin. ancestor; ancestral masquerader; realm of the dead; realm of supernaturals.

limbin-otọ. "elimhin of the earth," ancestral night masquerade (see also imobin-limbin).

ẹlo. Eyes, face (also see ẹlolo)

logbo. "empty face," a reference to yaws or leprosy.

lolo. bell with clapper (also ẹlo).

nyen. snake.

ẹre. native chalk or kaolin.

ẹrie. kitchen (also oẹrie).

ẹwe. uncultivated land; "bush."

ẹwu-ivie. coral beaded shirt worn by the Enijie.
gbọrhan (gbe ọrhan) to fell (kill) a tree.

ibi. clay.

idigba. coral beaded collar worn by the Enijie.

idigun. anvil.

Idigun. god of iron.

ido-ewa. mat-weaving.

Iduaroukpe. opening festival of the ceremonial year (Uromi).

idumu. quarter of a village.

Igbabọlosangue. annual harvest festival in Uromi, lit. "in praise of harvest."

Igbabọnlimhin. acrobatic ancestral masquerade.

Igbama. adult male age grade; adult men (see also Ighene).

igbọn. slave (see also oghumhan).

igbulu. men's toga-like wrapper style (also igbu).

ighanlan. Igala people, language, and territory.

ighene. adult male age grade; adult men (also Ighele).

igho. money.

igho esan. cowrie shells, lit. "Esan money" (see also ikpigho).

ighole. carved divination figure.

lgo. cult said to have been introduced to Ishan from Owo.

Igue. membrane speaker used by night masqueraders.

igule. common villages, as distinct from ẹguare (see).

igun. type of facial and body tattoos.

ihn. oath of loyalty (used in connection with ~ masquerade, Ekekhen village, Igueben.

Ihuan. new yam festival (Uromi).

ijeqele. small bells; crotals.

ijiakpa. flywhisk (also izakpa).

ijojosun. metal staff of Osun (see also osunijojo).

ijoko. stool.

ijomebhi. charcoal.

ikeqa. cult of the hands; carved image for veneration of the hands (see also ikeqobọ).

ikegobọ. cult of the hands; carved image for veneration of the hands (see also ikeqa).

Ikhianimhin. ancestral masquerade, lit. Ikhin animbin, "dance of the ancestral spirits"); var. Ikhin alimbin (see also Igbabọnlimhin).

Ikhin. dance (see also aqbn).

ikho. tattoo; ethnic mark.

Ikhuobọbọ. women's dance during Ekpo performance in Ekekhen village, Igueben.

ikpiqho. cowrie shells, lit. "small money" (see also igho-Esan).

ikpikbumun. amulet, lit. "small medicine."

ikpin. Python.

ila. human memorial heads (Amahor).

ilqbe. beads.

Ilo. acrobatic masker of Aqbnojie masquerade; lit. "grasshopper."

Ilodiọn. ceremony in which a new elder is recognized.

Iluekpo. annual festival of Ekpo in Ekekhen village, Igueben.

iluemhin. festival; ceremony. 

Iluobo. offering at ancestral shrine; annual ancestral festival.

Iluoto. annual ceremonial in honor of the land.

Imiena. carvers' clan in Uromi; lit. "sons of carvers."

imohin-limbin. ancestral night masquerade, lit. "elimhin which sing in the night" (see also limhin­-otọ).

Inotu. police force drawn from Iqhene age grade.

Iremhan. festival in honor of elders (Uromi).

irhun. male coming of age ceremony, lit. "I tie on (cloth)."

isabhel. leg rattles.

iskle. body tattoos.

isikuotọ. "owner of the land," descendant of founder.

isọt. revolt.

itan. story; proverb.

itolimbin. burial ceremony, second burial.

ivie. coral beads.

iyala. earthen walls and ditches surrounding ancient Ishan settlements (also iala).

iyokho. cocoyam (also iokho).

izembinze. figural sculpture (usage in southern Esan).

izigbo. fiber skirt for Ilo masquerade costumes.
kanọ to carve.

obera. right; right hand.

obhbh. paddle; shovel.

Obiembn. female deity associated with human fertility, mother goddess.

obodo. long-stemmed pipe smoked by elders.

ọbo. hand (plural abọ); also cult of the hand and hand image.

odẹ. door; doorway; shutter (see also akhu).

odibo. servant.

ododo. red cloth, originally European red flannel.

odugha. palace (see also guae); parlor.

oduwa. parlor; public room in a home.

onln. sun (also uvuọln).

oga. homage; service.

ogan. cloth or net facial covering in cloth mask costumes.

oghogho. ram.

oghombn. eagle (also oghohọn).

oghumhan. servant.

Ogiuu. "king of death;" death deity (also Ogiwu).

oguega. divining chains; divination using such chains (also ogweqa).

ogun. blacksmith (pl. igun)

ogwa. mixture.

oha. blacksmith's awl or punch.  

oha. hunting.

ohnln. priest or priestess (also ohn).

ohuan. sheep; ram.

ohu. hunter.  

oibo. white person; European.

ojeada. female head of a family.

ojie. king (pl. ijie}.

ojie-amn. "king of the waters," a reference to Olokun or to the crocodile.

ojie-elambn. "king of the animals," honorific for the leopard.

ojilimbin. "king of the ancestors," senior ancestral mask of a cloth tube type.

ojieto. girl's beaded hairdo worn after clitoridectomy, lit. "kingly hair."

ojiọbo. "king of the diviners," highest rank of diviner.

ojiọghọ. staff boiled in medicines to protect the ọnojie.

ojiukhuo. molded earth throne or dais of the ọnojie.

okede. double drums of native doctors and diviners (pl. ikede).

okha. history; story.

okha-emuanta. true story; history.

okhọn. cloth woven of bush fiber alone or fiber with cotton (see also utan), worn in irhun ceremony.

okhuale. basket.

okhun. sky. okhuo. woman. (pl. ikhuo)

oko. son; small boy.

okọ. mortar.

oko-ughele. elders' meeting house in the village plaza.

okolo. side-blown horn of native doctors and diviners.

okoyn. peace agreement. ~- shuttle used in weaving cloth.

okpekpe. wooden block used to de-seed cotton.

okpia. man (also okpea).

okpigbo. wooden board used to wash cotton thread.

okpodu. carved mask; masker of igbab9n~limhin masquerade.

okulo. war.

olimbin. corpse.

olis. seed game; carved wooden game board (also akpolis).

Olokun. deity of the sea (also Onokun).

olọ cooling substance whose primarily ingredient is the juice of a snail.

olulu. cotton (also olu).

omi. pond.

omiomhn. lizard.

ona. design; pattern.

onyn. crocodile.

opolo. pointed iron rod used as a weapon.

Or. carved figure; figurated housepost.

orukpa. iron oil lamp.

Osangue. harvest; harvest deity (Uromi).

Osanobulua. creator god, supreme god (also Osa, Osenobulua, etc.).

ose. beauty; painted designs.

osisi. gun; Dane gun.

osọdlimbin. offense against the ancestors or ancestral maskers.

Osun. medicine deity.

osunijojo. staff of the medicine deity (also ijojosun).

otọ. Earth.

otọ. female earth deity.

otọesan. deep Esan, lit. "Esan earth" (see also kesan).

otu. company; rank; age set in age-grade system.

otuneba. traditional organization of villages in Uromi into three ranks or military companies.

ozobo. sacrifice (pl. izobo).

ọba· ruler of Benin and the Edo empire.

ọbo. native doctor; diviner (pl. ebo or enebo).

ọbo-ighole. class of diviners who use an ighole figure.

ọbo-n'okhuo. female diviner.

ọbotọ. puff adder.

ọdeọmhan. executioner.

ọdiọn. elder; member of the highest age grade (pl. Ediọn).

ọdiọnwele. oldest man of a quarter, village or kingdom.

ọfure. peace; coolness.

ọqbihiaga. long hair; dred locks.

ọqhale. knife, lit. "it divides."

ọghuọgbe. supernaturally powerful.

ọgoya. somersaulting; tumbling.

ọhnakasi. horseman; equestrian (also ọhlakasi).

ọhọ. executioner's sword.

ọkakulo. war leader (pl. ekakulo).

ọkalo. warrior.

ọkanembin. wood carver.

ọkanivie. coral bead carver.

ọkhae. hero.

ọkhaemhin. chief (pl. Ekhaẹmhon).

ọkhọ. fowl.

ọkpa. one (number).

ọkpa. cock.

ọkpọ. elder's staff.

ọkpọ. housepost

ọlọbhọ. initiate

ọmada. swordbearer (also ọmuada, - mun ada = he carries the ggg sword), (pl. emada, emuada). ọmianimbin. initiate of the Igbabonlimbin society, lit. "child of the ancestors" (pl. imianimbin).

ọmijiogba. head of an extended family (also ọmọnijiogba).

ọmo. child (pl. imọn).

ọmọnosa. secondary deities, "children of osa”

ọmọrhan. wooden doll; votive figure, lit. "child of wood."

ọnabbuwa. initiate, lit. "one who has entered the house."

ọnakas. verandah, lit. "one reaches there first."

ọnojie. title of ruler, king (pl. Enijie).

ọnokhuembin. drummer.

ọinwena. surgeon; circumciser; scarification and tattoo specialist (also ọwena).

ọpia. machete; cutlass.

ọrhan· wood; tree (pl. erhan).

ọrhan-ebọ sacred tree.

ọrhan-ohiele. dicanuts tree.

ọrhan-um. cawood tree (Pterocarpus osun).

ọria. person, human being.

ọsa. chimpanzee.

ọsiobodo. pipe smoker.

ọsukbur. holder of the ancestral staff (pl. esukbur).

ọttẹ. woven fiber tray.

ọvia. powerful deified hero in Benin and esan.

ọwọrọ. lintel.

ọtu-uki. ceremony of atonement, "burying one's foolishness."
ubhimbin. black; blackness.

Ubunuku. men's wrapper style gathered at waist.

Ude. medicinal tattoos.

udomhin. weaving.

uwnln. family (also unln).

ufele. whistle.

ufnmbn arrow (pl. ifnmbn)

ugbo. farm.

ugbo-ekpo. resting place for Ekpo maskers in Ekekhen village, Igueben.

ugbodu. non-initiate.

ugẹn. feather (pl. igẹn).

ugha. open courtyard.

ughamban. axe, celt.

ughegbe. mirror, carved mirror case.

ughele. central plaza or broad street of a village.

ugholimbin. worship.

uguakpata. lateral hair crest worn by some Enijie and chiefs (also akpata).

uhẹn. bow.

uhin-eni. elephant tusk (see also akeni).

uhọnmhọn. head

uhuomo-ezele. anvil.

ujianmhin. red; redness.

ujie. part of burial ceremony; royal dance.

ukakamhin. hardness (e.g., of wood).

ukanọmhin. carving.

ukhinmbin. life tree, boundary tree (Ngwbouldia laeyis).

ukhuemhin. drum (pl. ikhuernbin).

ukhuerhan. xylophone (pl. ikhuerhan).

ukbumun. medicine; supernaturally charged substance (pl. ikhumun).

ukhuokhuo-ekn. earthen bed of a traditional house.

ukhur. ancestral staff.

ukhur ojie. "ukhure of the king," protective beaded staff.

uki. moon; month.

uko. gourd (pl. iko)

ukois gourd rattle (pl. ikois).

ukoko. pipe

ukokoẹle. small gourd used as medicine container (pl. ikokoẹle).

ukokọghuọ gourd filled with protective medicine, often worn on the body.

ukọ. messenger (pl. ikọ).

ukọ - ọba. messenger of the ọba.

Ukọrhan. annual carving festival (Uromi).

ukpabọ. wooden hand washing vessel (pl. ikoabọ).

ukpamn. raindrop (pl. ikpamn).

ukpe. year; an annual ceremony or festival.

ukpebala. banquette along walls of a traditional house.

ukpọn. cloth (pl. ikpọn).

ukpọn-esan. indigenous handwoven cloth (pl. ikpọn-esan).

ukpọn-ododo. handwoven cloth with a predominance of red color, "cloth of flowers" (pl. ikpọn-ododo).

ulubu. long iron pointed spear for hunting and warfare.

ulumobọ. hand pestle.

ulumokọ. pestle.

ume. camwood; camwood powder for body art (see also ọrhan-ume).

umolu. mold for making earthen building blocks (also umoli).

umomo. blacksmith's hammer.

unoko. iroko tree or wood.

unọfọ. fan made of woven fibers.

unu. mouth.

ure. snail.

uribhel. kolanut offering box or vessel.

uro. wooden platter, dish, flat mortar.

usagiolu. bow used to fluff cotton.

usasambin. cleverness.

utane. cloth woven of bush fiber alone or a combination of fiber and cotton (see also Okhọn), worn in the irhun ceremony.

utowo. fan made of woven fibers.

uviembin. crying.

uwa. house.

uwahan. house beam; lintel.

uwngbe. wooden dish.

uwnhen. wooden spoon.

uwolo. borrow pit for earth used in house building.

uyayeto. comb {also usaneto).

uze. axe.

uzo. antelope.


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